Comparison between China and Europe green card fro

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China EU comparison: green card from the perspective of energy economy

Abstract: green card can be a "paper" indicating the source of renewable energy power generation, or it can be more than a single "paper" similar to foreign green card. Spring is coming. I hope the development of green card and related green energy system can add color to the season

once the "notice" of green certificate jointly issued by the three ministries and commissions was published, it has attracted extensive attention and discussion. It is said that green certificate opens a new era of subsidies and comprehensively promotes the green power market; There are also green cards that may be useless; All parties are confused and puzzled about the green card, and also have expectations for the potential value and business opportunities after the implementation of the green card

this paper attempts to talk about ideas from the perspective of energy economy, and through a brief comparison of the corresponding green energy systems in Europe, especially Germany, to clarify the view of looking at the design green card from the whole energy system

green card from the perspective of energy economy

first introduce the essential thinking of green card, 1 Is it just an electronic certificate with the source of renewable energy power generation? Is it just a piece of "paper" with artificial value? 2. How to realize the intended role of the design and how to promote and stimulate the development of renewable energy spontaneously and voluntarily; How to drive investment without proper product price mechanism design; To what extent can the market with insufficient motivation reduce the subsidy burden? 3. Is the purchase of green certificate equivalent to the purchase of green electricity? What is the definition of the difference? What is the importance or auxiliary of green certificate to green electricity? 4. How can the green electricity market play with the added value of green certificates alone? 5. What is the relationship between green card and carbon card? Is it a supplement or impact? The above problems make us have to discuss the green card from the whole big energy system

in terms of the added value of green card, I think it is still one of the products in the closed loop of power trading. Although the economic attribute is much higher than the physical attribute, it does not mean that it has no successful model of product design combined with physical power trading. Therefore, it is also a question for the author to think about the integration of renewable energy and the refinement of renewable power trading to green power retail. As shown in the figure, it roughly depicts the mind map of the whole energy system led by green card. The concerns and reasonable design of green card in each branch can even be applied to the promotion of policies such as supporting new energy vehicles. The green dashed part is the special correlation between the thin branches. There are many key issues that can be listed under the green card system. The following is a comparative analysis of various important branches in combination with the situation of more mature European countries that are similar to and deeply different from China's power reform and green card system

comparison of green certificates between China and European countries

the table lists and compares the main branches in the energy system between China and Europe according to the idea of Figure 1, as well as some differences in the design of green certificates, and roughly grades the indicators according to the degree of completion, relevance and scalability. The depth of green indicates the completion of each comparison item

in terms of the construction of laws or regulations related to the green card system, there are similarities in the process between China and European countries. At the beginning, the green card system was established on a voluntary basis without clear legal provisions. Later, the European Union put forward the task that renewable energy utilization accounts for a certain proportion of terminal energy consumption in various countries, and derived the mandatory provisions that all Member States should indicate the source of electricity sales (see internal directive 2009/28/EG), and then made it clear through national laws, which is also one of the background of the origin of European green card. It should be noted that the provisions in this Directive are not equivalent to the green power quota system, Not all European countries implement green electricity quotas, which will continue to be explained below

in terms of electricity trading, Europe, especially Germany, gives priority to renewable energy and has a rigid regulation and model principle - merit order. This aspect is also often raised and discussed in China, but the actual performance and guarantee need to be demonstrated and improved. The construction of China's power market is gradually promoted with the acceleration of power reform. In terms of market construction, it has something in common with the principles of European and American markets, maintains Chinese characteristics, and drives the development of a number of power sales companies. However, at present, the electricity sales package and contract mode based on the initial market rules are still relatively single. For the topic of the marketization of renewable energy power generation, which is still being promoted in European countries, how to promote the marketization of renewable energy in China is still in its infancy, and green electricity sales is blank

in terms of carbon trading, the establishment of the national carbon market has been discussed long ago. Its own trading system and product type have not been fully defined, so the relationship with green card can not be fully determined. The difference is the design starting point between the two. The design purpose of carbon quota and certified carbon emission reduction equivalent in carbon trading is to control the greenhouse gas emission value in production and development; The implementation of green certificate solves the development of renewable energy power generation. Compared with thermal power generation, renewable energy power generation produces less carbon emissions. In terms of emission reduction and environmental protection, it can be understood as a subset and small branch of carbon emission reduction system. Some small and medium-sized enterprises in some European countries use non quota green certificates to offset the reduction of carbon footprint on the premise that they are not enough to get the carbon quota EUA. However, it is not considered that repeated applications and transactions can be made between green certificates and certified carbon emission reduction equivalent CERs (or ccers). The emission control end of green card is for power generation enterprises, while carbon card is for all walks of life. In addition, the impact of China's newly promulgated environmental tax on the second certificate is also potentially related to the added value of green certificate transactions

finally, the content of the written design of China EU green card is basically the same, but the essence is very different. The green card subscribers in European countries are mainly in the power generation and consumption enterprises at the end of B. on the one hand, this comes from the internal directives and the rigid provisions of national laws. On the other hand, it is also the need for the overall optimization of competition of enterprises. Most of the trading forms of green certificates are mainly auction and can also be traded over-the-counter. However, the trading platform is mostly in the power trading center rather than the green certificate issuing institution, which may be related to the above-mentioned green certificate electric energy merger trading mode

pure green card trading mode and its price index

as shown in the figure, the virtual trading scenario assumptions under the existing regulations are given. It is impossible to actually identify the type and source of power generation when the electric energy arrives at the user. Whether it is traditional or renewable energy power generation, it can be simply understood that it will be collected into a power pool and transmitted and distributed. The green power supplier here refers to the third-party Power Supply Bureau or power sales company independent of the power generation enterprise or the sales department subordinate to the power generation enterprise. The flow direction of electric energy itself has not changed because it does not involve physical delivery. The transfer of green attribute means that the renewable energy power station without subsidy applies for the issuance of green certificate and obtains the price of green certificate through sale

the key point lies in the determination of green certificate price and so-called green electricity price. Green power suppliers provide power contracts with green power attributes. On the one hand, they pay the price of renewable energy surcharge and green certificate like new energy power stations, on the other hand, they warm up the actual international market of traditional electricity: Plastic Extruders regain confidence, and suppliers pay the traditional electricity price. On the premise of national renewable energy surcharge and other government funds, and with the gradual approval of transmission and distribution electricity price, the analysis of European countries implementing green card and green power will provide reference for how to make such transactions reasonable and meaningful

among European countries, Britain, Italy, Sweden, Norway, Poland and Romania implement green power quota system. Green card trading in other countries is only free trading under the provisions of power source identification. There are similarities between green power compulsory quota and green card, but green card and green power quota trading are not interlinked with each other, and green card holding can not offset green power quota. This can be made clearer from the price difference between the two. On the left is the development of green card price of Scandinavian hydropower station in North Europe from 2010 to 2014, which basically fluctuated between 0.2 euro/MWh and 0.8 euro/MWh. Among them, the accident of Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011 stimulated the green card price to rise significantly (purple broken line), and then stabilized. On the right is the green electricity quota elcert price in Norway from 2006 to 2012, up to 38 euro/MWh (376sek/MWh). The huge difference between the price of green certificate and the compulsory quota of green certificate is positively correlated with the purpose of policy implementation, which has the function of skin friendly and skin nourishing, but it also affects the development of the interests of the executor of compulsory quota. Therefore, the balance point between the two or other innovation or licensing has become a new model

all in order to build a green energy system

relying on the autonomy and environmental awareness of green card subscribers is far from enough to promote the implementation of green card and even green energy system. Considering the problem from the consumer side, price is always the first meaning, even for consumers with low price sensitivity or products with low price elasticity coefficient, the role of price can not be ignored. As for the widely recognized high quality of life of citizens in developed countries, they often take the initiative to buy green electricity. First of all, they ask the rhetorical question: is green electricity necessarily expensive? According to statistics, in 2012, the price of green electricity in Germany was only 0.04 cents/kWh higher than the average traditional electricity price, and then the gap with the traditional electricity sales price gradually narrowed. Even now, some electricity sellers can provide cheaper green electricity. The reason and the enthusiasm of the buyer and the seller should also start from the conceptual distinction

after distinguishing between green card and green electricity quota, another concept that is easily confused with it is green label. As shown in the figure, green power sales in Germany must pass the certification of professional institutions and obtain the green power logo. At present, there are three major institutions that can issue green standards evaluated according to their own standards. In addition to requiring electricity to come from renewable energy, there are a series of strict additional standards, but the core is to require green power dealers to make a certain contribution to promoting the development of renewable energy, whether in terms of capital or other aspects, For example, the green power to be sold must come from new energy power stations that are not more than a certain number of years old. This has achieved the goal of promoting the development of renewable power generation in our new green card regulations to a certain extent. The green card can also play a role in the green label. Most German green label issuing institutions recognize the certification role of green card in renewable power generation sources, and the use of green card is one of the certification conditions of green label

in addition, green power under appropriate mechanism is not necessarily more expensive than traditional power! The reasons are as follows:

1. The definition of green power involves the content of green certificate. The sale of green certificate price can balance the difference between the power generation cost of a small part of renewable energy and traditional energy

2. Due to the carbon trading system of European countries, traditional thermal power groups need to pay for their carbon emissions and include the cost into the variable cost of power generation. The cost of renewable power generation of thermal power and scenery is calculated by simple simulation. The fixed investment cost is discounted according to the service life and interest rate with variable cost by using the net present value method to form a simplified linear power generation cost. It can be seen that renewable power generation is not necessarily more expensive than servo pump station: thermal power on the basis of certain power generation

3. The merit order model of electricity gives priority to generating electricity by approximating the marginal cost of renewable energy such as scenery to zero, which affects the transaction price and income of other generation types in the process of power transaction to a certain extent

4. The green electricity sales price in early Germany can reduce part of the renewable energy contribution, that is, it is equivalent to the renewable energy surcharge attached to the terminal electricity price in China. It is in line with logical thinking, because green electricity is recognized through green electricity logo, which is the premise of recognitionPlastic MFI Tester
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