Most of the nuclear safety problems caused by huma

2022-08-09
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Human factors still account for the majority of nuclear safety problems. Experts put forward preventive measures

the nuclear safety law has made clear provisions on the construction of nuclear safety culture in the nuclear industry. Based on years of supervision experience, the author discusses the necessity of nuclear safety culture construction in nuclear equipment activity units, analyzes the current situation faced by nuclear safety culture construction in nuclear equipment activity units, and puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions

why should nuclear equipment activity units carry out the construction of nuclear safety culture

according to the provisions of Articles 5 and 90 of the nuclear safety law, the operating unit of nuclear facilities is fully responsible for nuclear safety, and the unit that provides equipment to the operating unit of nuclear facilities does not bear nuclear damage compensation, but is only responsible for the corresponding. Then why should nuclear equipment activity units carry out the construction of nuclear safety culture? The reasons are as follows:

nuclear safety culture is a unique culture of employees in the nuclear industry, which began to spread to the whole industry from nuclear facility operators. Some are the dissemination of ideas, and people edify each other during communication, while others are solidified into documents due to contract provisions, such as nuclear quality assurance requirements. Nuclear equipment procurement activities are not just as simple as paying money and delivering goods. Without sufficient communication, we will not fully understand each other's needs, and it will be difficult to fully meet each other's requirements, and it will be difficult to trust each other, so as to establish and maintain a good cooperative relationship

it's the so-called business talking business, talking core. Nuclear safety culture is the common language in the nuclear industry. Without nuclear safety culture, we can't communicate with the industry. What we say is layman's language. In the construction of nuclear safety culture, we should firmly believe in "safety first and quality first", advocate "four things" (there are rules to follow, there are records to check, there are people responsible for everything, and there are people supervising everything), and take the nuclear quality assurance program as the code of conduct. No matter how small the share of nuclear power projects in the output value of the enterprise, as long as the enterprise is engaged in nuclear equipment activities, it is a member of the nuclear industry, it should strengthen the construction of nuclear safety culture. Only by strengthening the construction of nuclear safety culture can nuclear equipment enterprises better integrate into the nuclear power circle and do a good job in nuclear power projects

strengthening nuclear safety culture is our due attitude and code of conduct when pursuing the quality of nuclear safety equipment. The ultimate goal of nuclear safety is to maintain public health and environmental safety. If the ultimate goal of nuclear equipment activity enterprises is only to achieve the quality of equipment activities, it is different from the ultimate goal of nuclear safety

1 is a customized small panel control system

if we only take the realization of equipment quality as the ultimate goal, we will unconsciously shield some ideas and requirements about nuclear facilities, and it is easy to produce the idea of "doing these is enough", so we will not have a questioning attitude, nor will we be aware of the potential risks, and the service guarantee and response of nuclear facilities may be greatly reduced

in order to ensure the safety of nuclear power plants, nuclear equipment activity units need to have a deeper understanding of nuclear safety and do more in terms of equipment quality and service. Therefore, in this industrial chain, both nuclear power plant operators and units providing engineering equipment and services should take public health and environmental safety as the ultimate goal. The whole industry chain should have the same goal, think about problems from the perspective of the operating unit, carry out work, and carry out the design, manufacture and service of various nuclear safety equipment with a high attitude of being responsible for public health and environmental safety. This is the correct cultural value of nuclear safety

in addition to the eight characteristics of nuclear safety culture stipulated in the nuclear safety culture policy statement, in order to ensure the safety of nuclear facilities, the nuclear industry has many unique design principles and concepts, which have not only been transformed into the design requirements of nuclear power plants, but also integrated into the thinking mode of nuclear industry practitioners. The principles and concepts that China has completely become a supplier of mineral raw materials are important elements of the nuclear safety culture

if you do not understand these concepts, you may not understand the special technical requirements of nuclear equipment, and you may feel that a certain technical requirement is too harsh, unnecessary, and will not fully meet the technical and quality assurance requirements of the purchaser. Therefore, in order to ensure the quality of nuclear equipment related activities, nuclear equipment activity units must understand the unique ideas and norms of nuclear safety

current situation and Countermeasures for the construction of nuclear safety culture in civil nuclear equipment activity units

since November 2014, the national nuclear safety administration has vigorously promoted the construction of nuclear safety culture in the whole industry. In the field of nuclear equipment, through comprehensive publicity, guidance, evaluation and inspection activities, the level of nuclear safety culture of employees has been greatly improved in more than three years. We can really see this improvement. We can see the improvement of the overall quality level of nuclear equipment from the speech delivered by Shi Feng, Secretary General of China Forest Products Industry Association, and Fu Feng, director of the Institute of wood industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry Sciences

however, although the national nuclear safety administration has done a lot of work on the "two zero tolerances" in the past three years, punished and notified illegal enterprises, carried out experience feedback, and various units have also done internal publicity and feedback, the occurrence of the "two zero tolerances" problem cannot be eliminated, and the quality problems caused by human factors still account for the majority. This is a subject before the regulatory authorities, and it is also a problem faced by nuclear power owner engineering companies and nuclear equipment activity units. In the face of this situation, nuclear equipment activity units should take effective measures to minimize the quality risk caused by human factors and eliminate the occurrence of "two zero tolerance" problems on the basis of investigation, analysis and research. Specifically, the following measures can be taken

prevent "second mistakes" and emphasize openness and transparency. The so-called "second mistake" refers to the second mistake caused by employees' failure to carry out follow-up treatment measures in accordance with the procedures after errors or deviations in nuclear equipment quality related activities. It should be said that non conformities (hereinafter referred to as NCR) cannot be completely eliminated. The occurrence of NCR is not terrible and can be handled according to the procedure. However, it is worse to deal with in violation of the procedure in order to cover up NCR and other quality problems, especially concealing or tampering with records, resulting in quality hidden dangers

therefore, at this stage, employees already know the importance of nuclear safety. If they repeatedly emphasize the importance of nuclear equipment and increase rewards and punishments, the effect may be counterproductive. It is better to emphasize that the quality work of nuclear equipment with 100% equity of MT Marion spodumene project should be transparent and open, because if it is transparent and open, there will be no hidden risks, and all problems can be solved step by step in accordance with the procedures in the sun. Stop when you encounter problems, report to relevant personnel and follow relevant procedures. Some units have set up a "raise your hand report" system, which is a good practice to encourage the disclosure of quality problems. All equipment activity enterprises should cultivate an open and transparent cultural atmosphere among employees, eliminate employees' concerns, and encourage employees to expose their problems

human factor prevention is an urgent problem to be solved in the quality management and nuclear safety culture construction in the field of nuclear equipment at this stage. Preventing human factors not only prevents human errors, but also prevents the quality risk of nuclear equipment caused by human factors, that is, preventing human factors risk. Preventing human performance risks is a long-term work. We should study the forms of expression, analyze the causes, and formulate targeted measures. The current focus is on preventing secondary risks and emphasizing the principle of openness and transparency. Each nuclear equipment activity enterprise should formulate its own human performance risk prevention manual, specific to each process, list the untouchable red line list, enumerate all kinds of "no" and precautions, and make the nuclear safety culture concept and management requirements specific and operable

nuclear safety culture spreads to nuclear equipment enterprises, is understood, recognized and accepted by the decision-making level, management level and all employees of the enterprise, takes root and develops, combines with the corporate culture, and becomes a part of the corporate culture. Nuclear safety culture and corporate culture should be integrated rather than separated. It can't be said that this is the content of corporate culture, that is the content of nuclear safety culture, that is, two layers of skin. For example, some enterprises just put up slogans, made blackboard newspapers, and conducted symbolic training. This is just pretending to cope with the inspection, and there is no practical effect

nuclear equipment enterprises should integrate all the cultures in the nuclear safety culture that are conducive to quality and safety and can produce quality benefits into the enterprise culture. It is not necessary to formulate a set of document system of nuclear safety culture, but to integrate with the existing culture and management system of the enterprise and reflect the concept and characteristics of nuclear safety culture into various management systems. These management systems are not only the requirements of the enterprise's own management, but also the embodiment of the nuclear safety culture

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